Sunday, 19 February 2017

Augustus to Aurelian Chits & Cards Update and other related stuff

All sets of chits sprayed matt white with the Barbarian blue set to do next
Last month I let you know about a set of chits available from Sally 4th for those of us who don't particularly love shuffling cards, but do love randomised activation

http://jjwargames.blogspot.co.uk/2017/01/augustus-to-aurelian-command-chits-from.html

So I thought I would share my experience preparing them for playing with.

As you can see Roman set red are done and after a bit of trial and error I found the best way to get these chits colour coded was to spray the face up side matt white and apply a black wash to the detail and then tidy them up with brush on acrylic white.

I then colour coded them using a red sharpie pen, job done!

My Roman set red all done and dusted

It takes a bit of time and I will give them a spray of matt varnish, just to give them a bit more protection to wear and tear, but I think they have come up ok.

As you can see the Barbarian blue set have just had the wash applied so they are next up.

Also, this week I had a chance to do what most wargamers love to do in their spare time when not painting and that's messing about with ideas you have worked on, left alone and reviewed.

I wasn't completely happy with my AtoA unit cards and I needed to add some for officers showing their stats so these are the latest versions which are much smaller so shouldn't dominate the table.


The nice thing about the officer cards is that I can put a spare number chit on the appropriate card to identify a particular commander for chit drawing.


AtoA has a neat system of limiting Roman legionaries to one round of pilum fire in any one game and it is important to record when that fire has been used up and I think I might have found a neat way of indicating that, as well as some disorder and shaken markers - more on those ideas later.

Carrying on with the Ancients theme I am now the proud possessor of Warbases Hurlingstone Villa together with a front wall and gate to complete the complex.


I featured this new range of 28mm Roman buildings after my visit to Warfare last November and I am really looking forward to putting this model together. 


With plans to do games with raiding Dacian and Sarmatian warbands along the Danube into Roman Moesia, this will make a really nice objective/backdrop piece of terrain.

In addition to my new Villa, I also picked up a copy of 'Roman Empire at War' by Don Taylor, to support some research into the historical record when putting scenarios together



Next up the 1/2 Spanish Marines are done and based with just the ground texturing to do before their photo-shoot.

Sunday, 12 February 2017

Fireball Forward - Devon Wargames Group


Yesterday, Tom and I had much fun at the Devon Wargames Group playing a gamed hosted by fellow DWG member Si B, using his 1940 collection of WWII 15mm figures and playing for the first time, Fireball Forward (FF).

Battle for Stonne-15th &16th May 1940 - Devon Wargames Group

I saw the rules being played at Devizes last year and was reminded of them from when I first read about them with the publication of the first edition a few years ago.

I remember them looking like Squad Leader for the table-top very much with their modelling of section or squad bases rather than weapons groups as in I Aint Been Shot Mum (IABSM).

Si's collection of WWII 1940 15mm in action yesterday at the DWG
So what was my first impressions after our first game?
Well I like them and both Tom and I found ourselves very quickly picking up the nuances that the card driven activations present together with getting our head around the different dice combinations (D6, D4, D8 D12 and D20) we were using for the various weapons.

As with all variable initiative lead driven games each side is looking to string a series of moves together to allow a combined attack to have the greatest effect.

One key difference in FF is that the initiative cards (red suit/black suit playing cards) are drawn from the deck continuously, only stopping when an opposite colour suit is drawn. The player then decides based on the number of cards drawn which and in what sequence the corresponding units (Platoons) will activate marking each with a sequence number, 1st 2nd 3rd etc.

Each unit then conducts its movement, rallying and firing in any sequence it chooses before the next unit is activated and the process is repeated.

This means that every unit gets to activate in a turn before the cards are reshuffled unlike in IABSM where a double Tea Break card can end a turn leaving some units unactivated.

This aspect of IABSM can put some players off and I suppose FF provides more certainty of stringing moves together knowing all will activate at some stage in a move. I probably lean towards the IABSM level of uncertainty and chaos management simulation as being more in line with my own thinking but I found myself enjoying Fireball Forward, so the difference for me is minimal.

My one success going up against Tom's tanks yesterday
The other aspect of the rules that stood out for me was the use of variable dice for range and chances to hit, that once memorised produced a tense excitement to the combats.

For example, the light mortars and HMG fired using a combination of D20 for range, two red and two white d6 for hits.

So the basic chances to hit are set at 4+ for targets in the open, 5+ for in cover and 6 for hard cover/buildings and these are the factors applied to the white dice. The red dice reflect exceptional shooting and thus only cause a hit on a 6. If the D20 score is greater  that the range to the target then the shot is deemed to be in effective range adding one to the white die score.

Hits are then saved against using a D6 to roll equal to or higher than the base morale of the group/s targeted with groups usually requiring 4+ to save or 3+ if close to an un-hit commander who would test to save first.

Two hits on a group would destroy it, with commanders able to test to rally off successful hits when newly activated. Thus multiple hits were the order of the day in an attempt to destroy or drive enemy groups back suffering single hits and choosing to fall back before attempting to rally them off, or not if staying in hard cover.

The variable range dice are a very clever mechanic and provided a large level of uncertainty as to how effective any given fire attack would be. Certainly towards the end of the game, with units cowering in buildings carrying single hits and the threat of getting a second with multiple incoming rounds really created a sense of tension which was great fun.

Fireball Forward are a very good set of rules and provide an entertaining game, definitely worth checking out.

Wednesday, 8 February 2017

Talavera 208 - Bassecourts Spanish 5th Division, 1st Battalion, 1st Real Marina


The  completion of the 1/1 Real Marina begins the end of the Talavera project as work starts on the final division to complete the orders of battle required to play the afternoon attack. Once these seven battalions are done it just leaves a team of Spanish horse guns and some personality figures to finish the project prior to playing the games.

The Spanish 5th Infantry Division was commanded by Major General Luis Alejandro Bassecourt, and was very much General Cuesta's reserve division with its four battalions of regular infantry and two battalions of marines.

The positions of the armies prior to the afternoon attack
As the French attacks paused after the repulse of the morning assault it soon became obvious to the British commanders atop the Cero de Medellin of French preparations for their next and final attack with divisions moving off the opposite Cerro de Cascajal to the north and south threatening the left and centre of the allied positions.


With this adjustment of enemy forces needing to be countered, Wellesley requested troops from Cuesta to be deployed in the northern valley and in response General Albuquerque's cavalry division and Bassecourt's infantry division moved into the valley to support the British cavalry divisions of Generals Anson and Fane.

Major General Luis Alejandro Bassecourt
5th Division: Major-General Bassecourt - Source Oman (Battalions)
Real Marina (Royal Marines), lst Infantry Regiment (2)
3/Africa Infantry Regiment
Murcia Infantry Regiment (2)
l/Reyna Infantry Regiment
Provincial de Siguenza (Militia)

The Infanteria de Marina (Marine Infantry) had an establishment of 12,000 men divided into six regiments of two battalions each having six companies.


The Marine Infantry wore the same uniform as the line infantry differing only in the colour, blue instead of white.

Officers wore the uniform of the Spanish Royal Navy and when serving as land forces would occasionally wear a gilt gorget not worn when serving aboard ship.

Free Painting Guide - Captain Games see link below



The Royal Decree of 1802 set the flags (Colours) carried to one per battalion with the Coronela (Kings Colour in British parlance) carried by the first battalion and the Sencilla (Regimental Colour in British), adorned with the red Cross of Burgundy and surmounted at each corner with anchors, carried by the second battalion.

Contemporary illustration of a Spanish Marine Officer
Unlike the line infantry, I can find no reference to the grenadier companies being detached into separate battalions and so have modelled my marines with their grenadier company resplendent in their Spanish style bearskins adorned with the red-flap at the back with gold tassel, lining and anchor.


I must also extend my thanks to Tony aka MSFoy who hosts the blog Prometheus in Aspic who in building up his own collection of Spanish Napoleonic troops has developed a very nice range of regimental Spanish colours to adorn his own units and which he unselfishly offers to others.

http://prometheusinaspic.blogspot.co.uk


I adapted Tony's methods to rough up my own version of the Colours and he very kindly applied the texturing.


In the best traditions of Prometheus in Aspic I attach the first of these, the Coronella, for other enthusiasts to copy from here and size according to your preferred scale.


My 1/1 Real Marina are composed of figures from AB supplied by Fighting 15's.



Sources referred to in this post:
The Armies of Spain and Portugal 1808-14 - G.F.Nafziger & M Gilbert
Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (1) 1793-1808 - Rene Chartrand & Bill Younghusband

Sunday, 5 February 2017

Lieutenant Colonel George Henry Duckworth and the 1/48th Foot at Albuera

A young officer from the 48th Foot from the time of the Peninsular War
Yesterday was spent enjoying the delights of Topsham as Carolyn and I enjoyed the company of family during lunch in the town.

As you know, I always like to take the opportunity to enjoy the local history and being in Topsham presented the chance to call into St Margaret's Church on our way to the station to catch a train back to Exmouth.

St Margaret's is a Grade II listed building with original parts of the church, namely the tower dating back to the mid 15th century, and has had several re-builds over the centuries following damaging fires.

I came to know the church a few years ago when I attended a family Christening and was immediately drawn to the many historical monuments to various people dotted around its interior, one of which drew my attention, so as to cause me to make a mental note to return at some time to do some more research.

St Margaret's Church Topsham overlooking the River Exe
 This being a bit of a 'spur of the moment' visit, I only had my camera phone to hand, but grabbed a picture of the monument I was particularly interested in, namely the one below commemorating the death of Lieutenant Colonel George Henry Duckworth on the 16th May 1811 at the Battle of Albuera.


My camera phone was not up to the poor lighting in the church - see below for the citation on the plaque
"Sacred to the memory of George Henry Duckworth late Lieutenant Colonel of the 48th Regiment of Foot who fell at the Battle of Albuera on the 16th of May 1811 at the head of the first battalion while encouraging his men to charge the enemy. He had not completed the 19th year of his age. On the field where he sorly fell his remains lie buried."

Colonel Duckworth was the son of Admiral John Thomas Duckworth who at the time of his son's death was serving as Governor of Newfoundland, tasked with building better relations with native American tribes and improving the colony's defences.

It was Admiral Duckworth who on moving to Topsham established the family vault at St Margaret's and on his death in 1817 was buried there with full military honours. I attempted to get a picture of his tomb but my poor old camera phone wasn't up to it so that remains for a later post.

Admiral Sir John Duckworth
The 1/48th landed at Lisbon in early June 1809 and would play a pivotal role in the battle of Talavera being close at hand in the afternoon battle; when the KGL infantry to their front carried their counter-attack too far into French lines and on being repulsed by fresh French troops exposed the British line to an immediate French counter-attack.

General Wellesley ordered Lieutenant Colonel Charles Donellan to lead the 800 strong 1/48th into the gap caused by the KGL move and, with open ranks to allow the German troops to pass through to reform in their rear, opened up a devastating fire on the pursuing French columns, bringing the French attack to a halt.

When the smoke cleared and the French infantry were seen to be falling back in disorder with General Lapisse their Divisional commander dead and Colonel Donellan mortally wounded with a shattered knee cap, the battle was effectively over, earning the 48th Foot their nick name "The Heroes of Talavera".

A corporal of a fusilier company
 in the 48th Foot - Bryan Fosten
It was in the post Talavera command appointments that Lt. Colonel Duckworth took command of the veteran 1/48th Foot and it was he who lead them two years later as the 2nd Division under Major General William Stewart alongside  Major General Sir Galbraith Lowery Cole's  4th Division formed the core of British infantry in Marshal Sir William Carr Beresford's Anglo-Portuguese army.

Beresford had taken command of the allied force following the re-occurrence of a bout of Walcheren malaise that forced General Hill to take home leave to recover.

Thus it was Beresford who had independent command to take back the city of Badajoz which had fallen to Marshal Soult the previous year, whilst Sir Arthur Wellesley, now created the Duke of Wellington,  took the bulk of Allied troops north in pursuit of Marshal Massena's beaten army as he fell back to Cuidad Rodrigo in desperate need of reinforcements and supplies.

Meanwhile Marshal Soult aware of Beresford's approach began to call in his garrisons and troops laying siege to Cadiz ready to march north to relieve Badajoz and to challenge the Anglo-Portuguese force.

My 1/48th prepared for the Talavera project
Marshal Soult's move was a predictable response and Wellington ordered Beresford to leave a covering force at Badjoz and to move the bulk of his army to rendezvous with Spanish troops at a pre-selected site on the River Albuera at the town of that name a few miles south east of the city.

To say that Beresford was unsuitable for independent command is an understatement and his inability to command his forces in a coherent manner was demonstrated more than once during the Albuera campaign, only accentuated in times of great stress.

The Battle of Albuera would expose Beresford's incompetencies to such an extent that it would be the Spanish troops under General Zayas his junior British commanders and the steadfast British infantry, that would win the battle in spite of him and leave an exasperated Marshal Soult to state
"There is no beating these troops, in spite of their generals. I always thought they were bad
soldiers, now I am sure of it. I had turned their right, pierced their centre and everywhere victory
was mine – but they did not know how to run!"

The victory was indeed Pyrrhic with about 8,000 troops lost to both sides and with over 4,000 British casualties, only leaving victory to be declared because it was the French who withdrew south. An exasperated Wellington realising the political damage such casualties could cause at home and meeting a depressed Beresford, dismissed the Marshal's initial report of the battle stating sharply, "this won't do, write me up a victory!"

Map illustrating the initial stage of the Battle of Albuera with Hoghton's brigade yet to move through the Spanish lines
One of the best accounts I have read about the battle and campaign of Albuera is "Albuera 1811, The Bloodiest Battle of the Peninsular War" by Guy Dempsey which is one of those forensic studies that attempts to give as clear a description of the events as known intermixed with commentary from first hand sources that report the events described together with expert analysis.

Thus it was to Dempsey that I turned to discover what was known about Colonel Duckworth's role in the battle, his death and any information surrounding it.

As the French columns press the allied flank, and are stymied by the steady Spanish troops,
the British brigades marked A, B & C move forward to take up the fight.
The Battle of Albuera is unusual in that it is one of those occasions when British infantry did not conform to their usual tactical methods, namely the fire, cheer and charge that had served them so well on other occasions when tackling French infantry.

The tactics described were developed over time to avoid the very situation that developed in this battle with both sides conducting a lengthy close range fire-fight unable to break the deadlock and culminating in terrible casualties for both.

The other unusual aspect of this battle and one that surprised the veteran French infantry was that the Spanish troops under General Zayas held their ground as the French columns approached their lines and their volley fire forced the French columns to halt and attempt to deploy into line.

It was following this Spanish defence that British infantry pushed their way through their allies line to deliver their own volley fire on a French force disordered by the robust Spanish fire.

The map below is based on a similar one from Dempsey's book and he describes the action of the 1/48th,

 "The last unit in the brigade (Hoghton's) was the 1st Battalion of the 48th Regiment. It was unusual to have two battalions from the same regiment serving in the same action, but had previously happened to the 48th at Talavera. Now it was happening again, and the 2nd Battalion had already been annihilated in the French cavalry charge against Colborne's brigade. If the men of the 1st battalion knew of the fate of their regimental comrades, it did not affect their professional calm as they advanced to replace the Spaniards in front of them. The passage of lines does not, however, seem to have been smoothly executed here as it was elsewhere because the Spaniards in front of the 48th 'were in some confusion' and 'The intervals through which the Regt. had to pass were scarcely sufficient for a company'. The battalion nevertheless completed the manoeuvre, re-formed its line and opened fire on the enemy.

One characteristic of the the musketry duel on the northern knoll was the heavy loss suffered by the officers of each battalion. They were normally stationed, for obvious reasons, on the flanks and in the rear of the firing line, but this does not seem to have kept anyone from harm. The commander of the 1st/48th was one of the first to fall in the hail of musket and cannon balls, but he was followed by many others."


Dempsey then quotes a letter from 'an officer high in rank in General Beresford's army' that appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine, June 1811.

"Lieut. Col. Duckworth was first severely wounded in the left breast by a musket ball, while gallantly leading his regiment to the charge; but ... he could not be induced to quit the field. Shortly after another shot struck him in the throat and he expired without a groan." 

Surgeon Guthrie examined Duckworth's body post-battle and found the cause of death to be "a ball ... which divided the carotid artery, and killed him almost instantly." 

Dempsey's book presents a lot of information about the fall out from Albuera in terms of its effects on the survivors and families and in one of these latter chapters I discovered the sad tale of Duckworth's wife together with some discrepancy over the late Colonel's age at the time of his death.

In an age before military pensions and help for dependants of fallen soldiers the story of Penelope Duckworth is very illustrative of the times.

"The most melancholy incident .... concerning Albuera relates to Lieutenant Colonel Duckworth of the 48th. He was only twenty-three at the time of his death, (note his memorial in Topsham states his age to be just 19 which I thought was extremely young for a Lt. Colonel even allowing for commission purchase) but he had married at an early age and already had a four year old child. The grief of his even younger widow, Penelope (aged twenty-two), must have been all the greater because 'On the day of the afflicting news of the Colonel's death arrived at Plymouth, their only son ..... lay dead in the house, and was buried the following day. To make matters worse, the simultaneous deaths of her husband and son had a catastrophic effect on the economic well-being of Duckworth's widow: 'The admiral (Admiral Duckworth mentioned above) is at sea, and his infant son by his second wife, Miss Butler, will now be heir to the title and estate. Mrs Duckworth never remarried prior to her death almost forty-four years to the day after that of her husband."

Thus through no fault of her own, but purely through a tragic sequence of events compounded by the time she lived in, poor Penelope Duckworth not only suffered the tragic loss of her husband and young son but also the loss of rank and station together with the financial consequences that entailed.

Sources referenced for this post:
St. Margaret's Church Topsham, Devon
Sir John Duckworth, 1st Baronet
Wellington's Regiments - 48th Foot
JJ's Wargames - 1/48th Foot Northamptonshire Regiment
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Albuera
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Albuera_order_of_battle
Albuera 1811, The Bloodiest Battle of the Peninsular War - Guy Dempsey

Next up, Spanish Marines for Talavera

Monday, 30 January 2017

Augustus to Aurelian Command Chits from Sally 4th


As part of the preparation later this year to start to focus on the Dacian Wars collection I have been turning my mind to getting my rules preference 'Augustus to Aurelian' ready for my games.

I have reported on a couple of play-test games organised with Mr Steve and it is during these games that we have discovered how the rules work and confirmation of what attracted them to me in the first place, principally but not solely the randomised play sequence generated by the sequence cards recommended in the rules.

After playing a recent game of Sharp Practice II, which has a similar randomised movement system, common to many 'Too Fat Lardy' games, I really enjoyed using the draw chits as opposed to shuffling cards during each new turn of play, and decided this was how I wanted to play Augustus to Aurelian.

With that decision made I then had to look around for potential manufacturers to produce the style of chit that I wanted to enhance my games and that is where Mr Chris Abbey from Sally 4th came into the plan; who after a conversation at Warfare in Reading last November and after several email's with design ideas and numbers of each chit required, got back to me with the mock up designs illustrated  below before moving to the laser cutter.

In A to A each Army Commander has at least one and up to three command chits available depending on his rating, hence three of number '1'.

In addition each formation commander within the army has a command chit and thus we have one of each number 2 - 6, namely commander 2, commander 3 etc.

The Roman Chit design and quantity of each chit

The 'Carpe Diem' chits are dished out on an army specific basis with better commanders with better trained troops warranting more of these to be issued. A typical allocation would be one per commander in the army with variations around that number.

The Carpe Diem chits are held by their respective commanders at the start of the game and can be 'cashed in' at any time to enable a commander to grab the initiative and activate a command ahead of the normal sequence of drawing a chit. They may also be used to influence reaction tests.

Once played they are included in future draws from the bag and can be used to activate as per a command chit, but they become random just like the other chits but still influence better armies activating before a lesser trained or less efficient foe.

They are great at recreating the command and control that commanders are able to exert at the start of the battle but as time goes on and combat starts they are likely to be used up and thus the command initiative becomes less certain to be available when desperately needed, unless you are able to hang on to the odd chit or two.

The Barbarian Chit Design

The Meridiatio chits, of which there are two in the mix, indicate when a round of play is about to end and with the drawing of the second one has ended. This initiates a final phase where units in an unactivated formation may shoot followed by close combat, reaction tests, flights and pursuits, after which the chits are put back in the bag to begin the next turn.

In addition to these basic chits there are 'blinds move' chits to enable hidden units to be activated, together with 'special event' chits to cover off things like flank marchers arrivals and other such game influencing events.

The key thing is that you can very much design the chit mix to tailor it to the game you want to create, perhaps with barbarian armies having less ability to command their units so methodically as say a veteran Roman force.

So below is the final result and I received my chits in the post Monday morning. I went for the SPQR design for the Roman specific chits and the Torq design for my barbarian opposition with the idea of colour coding the edges blue and red.

Of course you might want to do Roman v Roman or Barbarian v Barbarian encounters thus I have two sets of each to be colour coded red and blue for those battles, and I'll post some pictures of my finished chits when done.

The final product awaiting the spray paint and sharpie pen
So if you want to get hold of these chits then follow the links to Sally 4th

Sally 4th Augustus to Aurelian Chits

In addition Augustus to Aurelian Rules can be found on the 'Lardies' shop

http://toofatlardies.co.uk/product-category/avgvstvs-to-avrelian/

More about the rules can be found here together with the play tests mentioned in the post.

http://toofatlardies.co.uk/blog/?p=948

https://meeples.wordpress.com/2014/09/10/review-augustus-to-aurelian/

http://devonwargames.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/augustus-to-aurelian-play-test.html

http://devonwargames.blogspot.co.uk/2016/10/augustus-to-aurelian-battle-on-river.html

Sunday, 29 January 2017

Crusade 2017 - Penarth and District Wargames Society


Crusade 2017 Wargames Show

Yesterday was spent pleasantly enjoying my first wargames show of 2017 in sunny South Wales at Crusade hosted by the Penarth and District Wargames Society.

After a very busy week at work I was in need of some R&R and what better than to immerse oneself in the hobby in the company of friends, Mr Steve, Jason and Nathan as we took in the games on show, enjoyed the many varied trader stands, chatted with other gamers as we wondered aimlessly around the new venue, St Cyres School, and thoroughly enjoyed the historical presentations from Drs Adrian Goldsworthy, Rob Jones and Mr Gareth Glover.

As always I thought I would share with you my impressions of the day and present my pictures of games and other items that caught my attention.

Last November, JJ's Wargames created quite a debate on various forums following my post about our trip up to Warfare at Reading and the difficulties posed by the venue, so I thought I would spend some time commenting on this new venue being used by the Penarth club which contrasts very favourably with a similarly congested venue they were using in the previous year.

St Cyres School is a very large modern building surrounded with acres of parking. The rooms are large, well lit (a definite aid to us camera wielders) and airy and there was plenty of room for further expansion should, as I suspect, the show grows in size. In fact the venue was so good for a wargames show, that the only complaint I heard was that we were all struggling to get our bearings and work out where everything was.

The Penarth organising team are to be congratulated for securing a perfect venue and I thoroughly enjoyed the day.

As with last year Steve and I headed immediately to the room set aside for the guest speaker presentations. I have commented previously that these presentations should become more common at wargames shows as they really add value to the day with a great opportunity to discuss and learn more about the history underpinning our hobby.

Crusade 2017 Guest Speakers

First up was Gareth Glover looking at the amphibious war that was conducted in the Mediterranean during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic period with a wide ranging run through of the various actions and the background leading up to them with a view to presenting the great possibilities of scenario design for the gamer.


The rather blurred picture of Gareth's initial slide (sorry I was using the IPad to capture these) showing a map of the Mediterranean with red numbered points dotted around to show where the various actions covered occurred.


As a student of the Peninsular War, I have always had a passing eye on the rather disjointed approach to British operations in the Mediterranean and its impact on Wellington's operations; particularly the activities conducted in the latter part of the war on the Eastern Coast of Spain to tie down Suchet's forces as the Duke prepared to carve up Joseph and Jourdan.

However the war for control of the Mediterranean and its sea lanes was wide and far reaching drawing in not only the forces of the French, Spanish and British but also the Russians, Turks, Americans and Austrians and we were treated to a run through of the various mini-campaigns, little wars and punitive expeditions that were characteristic of the fighting in this area.

The American expeditions to the Barbary Coast were covered as part of a wide ranging review
The activities of the British from the initial engagements under Admiral Hood at Toulon in 1793 and his failure to remove the French fleet, the later invasions of Corsica, Elba and Minorca drew out the tensions between the army and navy learning to co-operate with one another often with diverging objectives.

The navy were looking to take strategic bases for further operations designed to control the area whilst the army focussed on supporting allies on the mainland by taking and holding key islands and strategic points designed to frustrate French control and domination of the shore.

The tension extended to the actual joint operations themselves with the army complaining that the navy were in the habit of dropping their passengers at the first undefended beach rather than saving them long marches by getting them as close to their objectives as possible.

The point was well made that researching these operations requires the wargamer to read both the accounts on the navy and army to be able to arrive at a conclusion about the actual events often found somewhere in between the two.

British Landing at Aboukir in 1801
As the experience gained was built upon, British amphibious operations improved, culminating in the D-Day like precision of the landings at Aboukir in 1801 where General Abercrombie, commanding, put the experience of how not to conduct an amphibious assault, gained in his involvement in the landings in the Netherlands in 1793, to good effect.

The landing plan incorporated waves of assault boats supported by close in fire support ships and guide boats demonstrating a growing capability to conduct opposed beach landings.


We were then treated to examples of those smaller actions conducted by the more unusual units from this period with the Corsican Rangers lead by Sir Hudson Lowe later famous as Napoleon's gaoler on St Helena, but here a fearless leader in commando style actions, such as the attack on the Ionian island of Santa Maura in 1810 when Lowe lead his soldiers behind French defences using an aqueduct to gain access to the town.
Assault on Santa Maura 1810 - Fortescue

Captain William Hoste
Lowe was not alone as a daring commander in small operations and we were treated to the exploits of Captain William Hoste, one of those Nelsonian Royal Navy officers always ready to take the fight to the enemy and who excelled in these small actions particularly in his daring attack on Lesina (modern day Hvar) in 1813 and his victory at the Battle of Lissa in 1811; Captain Richard Church of the Greek Light Infantry who also played a significant role in the attack on Santa Maura and Colonel Robert Oswald of the 35th Foot

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hoste

Battle of Lissa 1811 - Nicholas Pocock
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Lissa_(1811)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_Regiment_Greek_Light_Infantry

Captain Richard Church - Greek Light Infantry 1813
35th (Sussex) Regiment of Foot played a leading role in British Mediterranean operations from 1800 to 1816

There was lots of actions to cover and the presentation had to scan over several of them that I had not heard before such as the Russo-Turkish Battle of the Danube also known as the Battle of Slobozia in 1811 where a certain General Kutuzov lured an Ottoman army over the Danube only to attack it mid crossing, destroying its supply and artillery train and forcing a surrender and eventual peace terms very much in favour of the Russians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Danube

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Zara_(1813)

Other actions included Lagosta 1813, Korcula 1813, Castalla 1813, Lesina (Hvar) 1813, Trieste, Zara 1813, Activities in northern Italy in 1814 and the operations by the British to support Royalist forces in Marseilles and Toulon in 1815 after Napoleon re-entered France.

The talk concluded with a look at the final moves by the British to halt the activities of the Barbary pirates in 1816 with the attack lead by Lord Exmouth which would later lead to the French occupation of North Africa as part of wider European concerns to control the North African coast line. How strange that Europe today still finds itself having to deal with a new form of pirates from the North African coast in the form of people traffickers.


I really came away from Gareth's presentation with lots of ideas for future games covering this interesting yet little covered theatre of the Napoleonic Wars.

Sharp Practice scenarios abound with the multitude of small scale landings and commando style actions and those interested in exploring these ideas further would be well served by getting Gareth's two books looking at the war in this arena.


Next up was a very interesting presentation and discussion hosted by Adrian Goldsworthy and Robert Jones looking at the issues faced by ancient and medieval armies when looking at battlefield command and control.


Adrian kicked things off with an analysis of the types of troops that made up ancient forces and a consideration of their training, if any, and their experience of manoeuvring in the presence of the enemy.

Large battle experience was a relatively rare one with most military activity focused around smaller actions such as raid and counter-raiding operations and thus it was likely that many so called disciplined forces would have had great difficulty making some of the simplest manoeuvres when the threat of battle was close at hand.

Greek hopolites or barbarians in armour when it came to control on the battlefield
Commanders would have to pay close attention to controlling the natural instincts of their men and young men in particular liable to lose control and charge in, in a bid to get the whole thing over and done with; and this impetuosity, so often modelled in rules covering barbarian warbands, could also affect so called drilled armies as well. It was pointed out that many units of Greek hopolites were civilians most of the time and their level of training and discipline could liken them to be described as barbarians in armour.

The natural instinct to close rapidly with the enemy could also be contagious and an unwary commander may soon find neighbouring contingents soon joining in the uncontrolled rush to battle removing the possibility of choosing the best time or place to commit to the fight.

The Roman tactics were discussed with a conclusion that a significant improvement in Roman methods was to encourage commanders to operate as such, thus not to engage in Alexander like charges in the front ranks, but to stay back to direct and orchestrate the fighting in a Wellingtonian model of trying to be in the right place at the right time.


The age old problem of rule sets struggling to model Roman 'Triplex Acies'  was discussed looking at the multiple line of maniples often in chequerboard formation thought to facilitate Roman units moving into combat and being able to retire back on the supporting lines or be reinforced by them.

It was interesting hearing Adrian's dissection of various rule sets and I have come away even more confirmed in how well 'Augustus to Aurelian' models these tactics

The other issue discussed was the problem of controlling victorious troops in pursuit of a beaten foe. Many rules capture this effect by insisting that victors make an immediate pursuit for at most one turn and then attempting to rally back under control.

The evidence of this happening very often is not overwhelming and that probably the normal reaction would have been a pursuit off the wargames table with a test to return at some very variable time if at all.


The example of Hannibal's cavalry defeating the Roman cavalry at Cannae on both wings and reining in from the pursuit twice then to return and attack the Roman infantry from the rear was described as very unusual and uncommon.

Rob Jones then presented the issues facing the medieval commander and concluded that if you thought things were tough in the ancient period, it didn't improve much if at all in this later one.

The chaos of early medieval battle
The early medieval period is characterised by armies of warbands with all the issues of impetuosity and uncontrolled battle that that would imply together with pursuit of a beaten foe.

The picture doesn't improve much in the latter periods other than the fact that the armies became slightly more delineated into specific commands or vanguard, centre and rearward battles with sometimes a fourth or reserve battle.

http://www.medieval-spell.com/Medieval-Army.html

The armies were not trained in mass battle tactics or formations other than to form up into separate masses of troops. The role of junior positions within the ranks of soldiers such as vintenars and centinars are not thought to have commanded the men in battle but rather thought to have been more concerned with ensuring the twenty or hundred men they were responsible for turned up for duty.

As far as the knights were concerned the only command ranks were the constables and marshals who could pull rank to decide who would have the position of honour in the line and the King, Princes and Nobles of Royal blood who would be required to command the army as whole because nobles were known not to obey any commander of lesser rank.

It seems we can also forget about knights regularly training for battle and archers turning out to practice their shooting skills. These men when not soldiering were busy in their other roles outside of their military responsibilities and enjoying all the social activities that would keep any young man away from training at arms; the evidence suggests that training for war was minimal even among the knightly classes.

Thus the picture created is of a mass of troops, split up into commands with a minimum of manoeuvre training and battlefield discipline, severely limiting the commander's ability to practice much finesse in the way he could choose to run his battle.

The age of chivalry when commanders were expected to get stuck in
The other additional issue was that this was the age of chivalry and commanders were required to lead their men in battle from the front. This only aggravated the command and control situation with senior ranks too busy fighting for their lives and smiting the enemy to get caught up in overseeing any battle plan.

Even when there was a plan agreed the senior commander or King could not always rely on his subordinates to carry it out in the way agreed and the call of honour and glory could always be relied upon to affect a junior commander's judgement with an impetuous attack possibly causing others to join in prematurely.

So what about rule preferences from our distinguished presenters? Well Adrian made the point that being an academic and wargamer made it really difficult to choose a set of preferred rules to model all the considerations they would want included.

At the moment AG was enjoying playing Sword Point from Gripping Beast with some reservations.
Grippingbeast - SWORD POINT

RJ felt that one of the best Medieval rule sets available was 'A Coat of Steel' which are free and produced by the Perfect Captain, just asking you to make a contribution to charity for using them.
A Coat of Steel - Perfect Captain

As mentioned I came away confirmed in my own choice of Augustus to Aurelian and likewise A Coat of Steel which I have all printed out and ready to go at some stage.

Key 'take aways' for me were to err towards upping the chances of impetuous attacks even among the ranks of my disciplined Romans, limit the options on redeployment and manoeuvre of troops in the face of the enemy and increase the chances of uncontrolled pursuit by victorious troops.

Thank you to Gareth Glover, Adrian Goldsworthy and Robert Jones for an excellent, very interesting, educating and thought proving series of presentations, which for me is a highlight of the show.

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So with my mind fired up with ideas and insights we grabbed a quick bite of lunch and then set off exploring the show.

As we made our way towards the first show room my eye was caught by some lovely painting which given the subject matter of the previous presentations seemed very appropriate with Napoleonics and medieval models displaying the skill of "Little Ninja Painting".


Napoleonic and Medieval painting service from 'Little Ninja Painting'
Nothing better than to see what a prospective painter can do for you than seeing their work close up 'in the flesh' so to speak



Bach Mai Airfield 1954, French Indo-China War, Demonstration Game
Presented by Major Brothers

The first game that caught my eye was this stunning presentation of the attack on Bach Mai Airfield in the French Indo-China War 1945 - 1954.




Obviously a labour of love to put all those model aircraft together as well as the terrain and figures.





Really great looking game that set a fine standard for the day.



Quatre Bras 28mm - Demonstration Game
Presented by The Officers Mess

Next up we took time to chat with members of a new club based in Wells, Somerset and thus neighbours of ours, down in Devon; 'The Officers Mess' who put on this 28mm Napoleonic Quatre Bras game.


Those guys with the helmets are Chasseurs a Cheval who donned their new look at Quatre Bras in 1815
Well that certainly scratched my itch to see some Napoleonics in action with some very fine painting on display.



Mob Violence in Ancient Rome Participation Game
HATS (Haverfordwest Wargames Club

Next up a lovely recreation of first century Rome with a game recreating the gang violence and mob rule that was very much a part of ancient Rome.



The scratch built buildings with slave market, out-doors communal toilets and an orators stand below the marble statue was a joy to see and set off brilliantly with an appropriate cloth.



The civilian character figures were beautifully done. I particularly liked the man with the child on his shoulders below.



Roman's, Countrymen, lend me your ears .............
Not only a great game to see set up ready to play, but it was also for sale, lock stock and barrel.


"What a Tanker!" Participation Game
Too Fat Lardies

Richard Clarke and Nick Skinner aka Too Fat Lardies have made Crusade a regular venue on their promotional tour around the country, year on year and being a confirmed Lardy fan myself it was a pleasure to see a new set of rules from the House of Lard on display - 'What a Tanker'.


I love the peculiarly British style of 'Carry on' humour that permeates through every rule set the Lardies produce. I know some people confuse this humour with a suggestion that their rules are not serious games, or 'beer and pretzels' rules as our American cousins would say, but that would be a big mistake to make.

The rules the Too Fat Lardies produce are very much focused on the simulation side of the hobby but with a huge dollop of fun built into the play design and to my mind they and others have lead the hobby in new ideas of design concepts away from traditional 'igougo' rules and have looked to include the concept of battlefield friction.



As always a Lardy game is well turned out but there is nothing here that any gamer couldn't bring to the table at a normal club night or game at home.


Battle of Magenta, 2nd Italian War of Independence - Principles of War
Wessex Wargames Society - Southampton

In the next room we got chatting to members of a the club that boasts the late great Don Featherstone among their former membership.

The Wessex Wargames Society have been around since 1969 and puts the Devon Wargames Group est. 1983 into perspective.

They had put on a very attractive 'Principles of War' game covering the Battle of Magenta 1859.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Magenta



These later 19th Century European Wars have always drawn my eye as a lover of all things Napoleonic, although for me the improvements in weaponry upsets the balance that is Napoleonics and has thus kept this as a period I would play but not one I must play.


That said I can always appreciate a well turned out game that draws the casual observer like me in to learn more.



War of 1812, A Plastic Victrix & Perry Demonstration Game
Esprit de Corps

I am a sucker for all things 'War of 1812' so it took little prompting for me to linger and get some shots of this lovely looking game featuring lots of figure adaptations to show some typical British/Canadian and US troops of the period.

Canadian Militia look on

Given the small size of the battles of this war, 28mm or larger would seem to be an ideal scale to do it in, and this is a period on my list of collections I would like to do at some time

Canadian Voltigeurs to the fore


I believe the chaps from the Esprit de Corps group were using a set of Don Featherstone skirmish level Napoleonic rules to model this little set to and I was very happy getting this game in the viewfinder.



"Those are regulars by God"
So there we are, the show season for 2017 well underway with an excellent Crusade 2017 in its brand spanking new shiny venue.

Thank you to the Penarth and District Wargames Society for organising a great show and to Mr Steve, Jason and Nathan for their company during the day.